BILL ANALYSIS                                                                                                                                                                                                    Ó

          |SENATE RULES COMMITTEE            |                        AB 101|
          |Office of Senate Floor Analyses   |                              |
          |(916) 651-1520    Fax: (916)      |                              |
          |327-4478                          |                              |

                                   THIRD READING 

          Bill No:  AB 101
          Author:   Alejo (D), et al.
          Amended:  9/1/15 in Senate
          Vote:     21  

           SENATE EDUCATION COMMITTEE:  9-0, 7/8/15
           AYES:  Liu, Runner, Block, Hancock, Leyva, Mendoza, Monning,  
            Pan, Vidak

           AYES: Lara, Beall, Hill, Leyva, Mendoza
           NOES: Bates, Nielsen

           ASSEMBLY FLOOR:  59-20, 6/3/15 - See last page for vote

           SUBJECT:   Pupil instruction:  ethnic studies

          SOURCE:    Author
          DIGEST:  This bill requires the Superintendent of Public  
          Instruction (SPI) to oversee the development of a model  
          curriculum framework in ethnic studies and establish an advisory  
          committee on ethnic studies.  Additionally, the bill provides  
          that all school districts serving students in grades 7 to 12 may  
          offer ethnic studies as an elective course.  


          Existing law:

          1)Establishes the Instructional Quality Commission (IQC),  
            formerly known as the Curriculum Commission, as an advisory  


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            body to the State Board of Education (SBE).  The IQC is an  
            advisory body to the SBE and is responsible for recommending  
            curriculum frameworks, developing criteria for the evaluation  
            of instructional materials, evaluate and recommend adoption of  
            instructional materials.  (Education Code § 33530 and § 60204)

          2)Prohibits the SBE from adopting instructional materials or  
            undertaking the work of the IQC until the 2015-16 school year.  
             (EC § 60200.7)

          3)Specifically authorizes the SBE to consider the adoption of a  
            revised curriculum framework and evaluation criteria for  
            history-social science.  (EC § 60200.8)

          4)Requires IQC to consider incorporating into the history-social  
            science framework content on specific historical events,  
            including the Armenian, Cambodian, Darfur, and Rwandan  
            genocides and the Great Irish Famine of 1845 to 1850.   
            Existing law also encourages the California Department of  
            Education to incorporate into curriculum resources for  
            teachers, age-appropriate materials on the Armenian,  
            Cambodian, Darfur, and Rwandan genocides.  (EC § 51226.3)

          5)Requires the IQC, whenever the history-social science  
            framework is revised, to do all of the following (as  
            appropriate and based on the subject matter of the course):

             a)   Receive input from civics learning experts for purposes  
               of integrating civics learning content, concepts and skills  
               with the standards.

             b)   Consider how civics and history instruction includes the  
               application of that content to develop the competence and  
               skills needed for civic engagement.

             c)   Ensure that voter education information is included in  
               the American government and civics curriculum at the high  
               school level.  

             d)   Ensure that specified historical documents are  
               incorporated into the framework.  (EC § 33540)

          6)States Legislative intent that when the history-social science  
            framework is revised after January 1, 2015, the Instructional  


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            Quality Commission (IQC) consider whether and how to  
            incorporate the College, Career, and Civic Life Framework for  
            Social Studies State Standards into that framework.  (EC §  

          7)Requires the IQC, during the next revision of the  
            history-social science framework, to consider including and  
            recommending for adoption by the SBE, instruction on the  
            election of President Barack Obama and the significance of the  
            United States electing its first African American President.  
            (EC § 33543)

          This bill:

          1)Makes various findings and declarations regarding ethnic  

          2)Requires the SPI to oversee the development of, and the SBE to  
            adopt, a model curriculum to ensure high quality ethnic  
            studies courses that meet the A-G approval requirements of the  
            Regents of the University of California.

          3)Requires the SPI, on or before the 2016-17 school year, to  
            establish an Ethnic Studies Advisory Committee (Committee)  
            comprised of a majority of teachers with experience in  
            teaching ethnic studies from public schools.

          4)Requires the Committee to advise, assist, and make  
            recommendations to the SPI regarding the development of the  
            model curriculum.

          5)Provides that upon completion of the development of the model  
            curriculum, the Committee shall cease.

          6)Provides that school districts enrolling students in grades 7  
            to 12, in the school year following the adoption of the model  
            curriculum, may offer to students as an elective course in the  
            social sciences, a course of study in ethnic studies based on  
            the model curriculum.


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                                                                    Page  4


          Need for the bill.  According to the author's office, "given  
          California's annual increase in diversity, it is especially  
          important that students build knowledge of the various racial  
          and ethnic groups in our state.  Expanding the high school  
          curriculum to include ethnic studies will help students relate  
          to historical events and have a better understanding of their  
          own history and history of other neighbors.  Learning of the  
          struggles for equality will teach students what it means to be  
          an American."  The author's office further indicates that  
          "developing ethnic studies programs in public high schools is an  
          integral part of cultivating a classroom environment that is  
          accepting of diverse cultures."  

          Current revision of the history-social science framework.   
          Academic content standards define the knowledge, concepts, and  
          skills that students should acquire at each grade level.   
          Curricular frameworks are the blueprint for implementing the  
          standards, and include criteria by which instructional materials  
          are evaluated.  The history-social science framework was last  
          adopted in 2005.  The revision to the history-social science  
          framework was suspended in July 2009, and subsequently resumed  
          in July 2014.  The draft revision was released for field review  
          in September 2014, is expected to be presented to the SBE in  
          November 2015, and expected to be adopted in May 2016.  

          The draft generated extensive public comment (nearly 700  
          comments).  The IQC also determined that more subject matter  
          expertise was needed for certain areas (including some mandated  
          for inclusion by legislation), and submitted a budget request  
          for $124,000 to hire experts through an interagency agreement.   
          These events caused significant delays in the production of the  
          revised framework, which was originally scheduled for adoption  
          in May 2015.

          A schedule once existed for the revision and updating of  
          curricular frameworks.  That schedule was suspended in 2009 when  
          the prohibition on that process was imposed.  Current law  
          continues to reference an eight-year cycle for revisions to  
          frameworks and the adoption of instructional materials.  It is  


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          likely that the next revision of the history-social science  
          framework will occur in several years.

          The draft history-social science framework developed by the IQC,  
          describes high school elective courses in ethnic studies as  

               "Ethnic studies is an interdisciplinary field of study  
               that encompasses many subject areas including history,  
               literature, economics, sociology, and political  
               science, among others. In this course, students focus  
               on an in-depth comparative study of the history,  
               politics, culture, contributions, challenges, and  
               current status of ethnic groups in the United States.  
               It is also important for students to learn the  
               national origins of ethnic groups and their  
               transnational linkages. In Ethnic Studies, students  
               examine the process of racial and ethnic formation of  
               ethnic minorities in a variety of contexts: political,  
               legal, social, historical, economic, and cultural. The  
               course concentrates, to a great extent, on the  
               experiences of various ethnic minorities in the United  
               States and the ways in which their experiences were  
               impacted by the issues of race, ethnicity, class,  
               gender, and the interaction among different ethnic  
               groups. Students will also address how individuals  
               within specific ethnic groups think and feel about  
               themselves and their group as it can be represented by  
               literature, memoirs, art, and music. To understand  
               ethnic identity in their local communities, students  
               can volunteer with local community organizations and  
               centers that serve specific ethnic populations." 

          Is the bill necessary?  Current law provides for the IQC to  
          advise on curriculum and instructional materials.  In  
          addition, various Education Code provisions already call  
          for the incorporation of curriculum, textbooks and  
          materials which highlight the role and contribution of  
          various ethnic groups in California and United States  
          history, and the existing history social-science framework  
          for grades K-12 identifies ethnic studies as an elective  
          course of study for grades 9-12.  Further, several school  


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          districts have already made completion of a course in  
          ethnic studies a local graduation requirement, including  
          the Los Angeles Unified School District, Montebello Unified  
          School District, and El Rancho Unified School District.   
          San Francisco Unified School District has resolved to offer  
          ethnic studies courses at all high schools, and explore  
          ways create such a graduation requirement in the next five  
          years.  As such, is a state prescribed model curriculum in  
          ethnic studies as proposed by this measure necessary?   

          According to data reported by the California Department of  
          Education (CDE), 8,129 students were enrolled in ethnic studies  
          courses in the 2012-13 school year.  Of those, 4,379 students  
          were enrolled in 435 social science ethnic studies courses in  
          100 schools, and 3,750 students were enrolled in 137 language  
          arts (ethnic literature) courses in 49 schools.  However, only  
          108 of the 435 social science courses and 97 of the 137 language  
          arts courses were identified as approved A-G courses.  

          A-G requirements.  Typically, California high schools submit  
          their courses to the University of California (UC) for A-G  
          review during the annual "A-G" update cycle.  There is subject  
          area course criteria that must be met and can include  
          prerequisite work, substantial reading and writing, and  
          laboratory activities.  Once approved, the courses are added to  
          the school's official "A-G" course list maintained by the UC.  

          Model curriculum.  The SPI is required to develop or revise a  
          model curriculum on the life and work of Cesar Chavez and submit  
          the model curriculum to the SBE for adoption.  The SPI is  
          required to distribute the model curriculum to each school upon  

          The Model Curriculum for Human Rights and Genocide, adopted by  
          the SBE, is to be made available to schools serving grades 7-12  
          when funding is available, and requires the Model Curriculum to  
          be available on the website of the CDE.  

          Ethnic studies courses are taught in different disciplines such  
          as history, social sciences, and literature.  For example,  
          Montebello Unified School District offers a history elective  


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          called "Mexican American Studies" and an English/Language Arts  
          elective called "African American Literature" while the San  
          Francisco Unified School district offers a social studies  
          elective called "Asian American History."  

          This bill does not specify the types of courses that are to be  
          included in the model curriculum.  Presumably, the advisory  
          committee that the bill proposes to establish would be tasked  
          with this effort which could be challenging given the various  
          disciplines and broad spectrum of courses to choose from.  

          FISCAL EFFECT:   Appropriation:    No          Fiscal  
          Com.:YesLocal:   No

          According to the Senate Appropriations Committee, this bill will  
          result in anticipated costs to the California Department of  
          Education of about $476,000 in the first year and $313,000 in  
          the second year to develop the model curriculum and support the  
          Ethnic Studies Advisory Committee.  This includes two full-time  
          and two part-time positions. 

          SUPPORT:   (Verified8/28/15)

          American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees
          Asian American Studies Program at the California State  
          University, Fullerton
          Association of Mexican American Educators, Inc.
          Berkeley City Council
          California Association for Bilingual Education
          California Faculty Association
          California Federation of Teachers
          California Immigrant Policy Center
          California Latino School Boards Association
          California League of United Latin American Citizens
          California School Boards Association
          California Teachers Association
          Californians Together
          El Rancho Unified School District
          Ethnic Studies Now Coalition
          Inland Empire Immigrant Youth Coalition


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                                                                    Page  8

          Los Angeles Unified School District
          Montebello Unified School District
          National Association of Social Workers, California Chapter
          Santa Barbara Unified School District
          SIATech High School
          United Farm Workers
          Numerous individuals

          OPPOSITION:   (Verified8/28/15)

          California Right to Life Committee, Inc.

          ASSEMBLY FLOOR:  59-20, 6/3/15
          AYES:  Achadjian, Alejo, Travis Allen, Baker, Bloom, Bonilla,  
            Bonta, Brown, Burke, Calderon, Campos, Chau, Chiu, Chu,  
            Cooley, Cooper, Dababneh, Daly, Dodd, Eggman, Frazier,  
            Cristina Garcia, Eduardo Garcia, Gatto, Gipson, Gomez,  
            Gonzalez, Gordon, Gray, Roger Hernández, Holden, Irwin,  
            Jones-Sawyer, Kim, Lackey, Levine, Linder, Lopez, Low,  
            McCarty, Medina, Mullin, Nazarian, O'Donnell, Perea, Quirk,  
            Rendon, Ridley-Thomas, Rodriguez, Salas, Santiago, Mark Stone,  
            Thurmond, Ting, Weber, Wilk, Williams, Wood, Atkins
          NOES:  Bigelow, Brough, Chang, Chávez, Dahle, Beth Gaines,  
            Gallagher, Grove, Hadley, Harper, Jones, Maienschein, Mathis,  
            Mayes, Melendez, Obernolte, Patterson, Steinorth, Wagner,  
          NO VOTE RECORDED:  Olsen

          Prepared by:Lenin Del Castillo / ED. / (916) 651-4105
          9/1/15 20:25:19

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